Background: Since December 2019, Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to most places in China and other countries, which may exert further impacts on the physiological and psychological states of urban and rural residents. Therefore, itis necessary to explore their health status during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: Convenience sampling is selected for a crosssectional investigation and SHS questionnaires were distributed by WeChat. Results: A total of 15681 valid questionnaires from 4988 (31.8%) healthy participants, 9991 (63.7%) participants in SHS and 702 (4.5%) in a morbid state are incorporated. As shown by total scale, psychology and social aspect, SHS prevalence rate of rural residents is above that of urban residents; however, the contrary is the case for their physiological status. Regarding all participants, female gender, with low body mass index (BMI), or in the low-income group are account for the higher SHS prevalence rate. Based on ordinal Logistic regression analysis results, male gender and short time spend on electronic products are protective factors for SHS, while sleep deprivation is a risk factor for both urban and rural residents. (p<0.05). Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence rate of SHS in rural residents’ psychology, society and total scale is higher than that of urban residents. Major influencing factors include gender, time spent on electronic products, sleep time, smoking and social roles. Residents should properly adjust their daily schedule; and related governmental departments should particularly focus on SHS of rural residents and provide diversified life and psychological support during the COVID-19 pandemic.