Aim: This paper aims at investigating the sub-health status (SHS) of different social roles during the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and analyzing its influencing factors. Design: A cross-sectional, convenience sampling including 1062 Chinese was conducted in March 2020. Statistical analysis was then performed for the data using SPSS 22.0. Results: The total SHS score for people with different social roles during the COVID-19 pandemic was 72.808±12.034; with the physical, psychological and social adaptive score were 80.252±12.336, 68.753±13.281 and 66.632±18.604 respectively. Univariate analysis showed that SHS scores for social adaptability were different in different places of residence, as well as physical, psychological and total SHS scores for different social roles (P< 0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that the social roles were a factor influencing the physical SHS score (P < 0.05), while gender was the factor influencing the psychological SHS score (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Human resource management needs improvement; meanwhile health consultation, enough time to rest and health care service are essential for medical staff, Centers for Disease Control (CDC) personnel, as well as couriers. Support to maintain work-family balance is seriously expected for female employees. Overall, the top priority in controlling COVID-19 is to protect their health both mentally and physically.