Introduction: Maternal health issues continue to be a forefront of national and global health policies. Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) was launched under the umbrella of National Rural Health Mission to increase the number of institutional deliveries and decrease the maternal and neonatal mortality. Objective: The aim was to assess the utilization of maternal health care services including JSY among the mothers of underfive children in a slum at Baghbazar, Kolkata. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Baghbazar slum, which is under the Urban Training Centre of R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata from 1st to 28th February, 2014. A total of 72 mothers of under-five children were interviewed using a predesigned, pretested and semi-structured schedule. Results: About 74% mothers were in the age group of 20-30 years and 56.8% mothers were from class IV socioeconomic status (Modified Prasad scale, 2013). Illiterate mothers were 4.2%. Three-fourth of the mothers heard about JSY. Around 47% mothers got cash benefit. Lack of eligibility document (42.1%) and ignorance (34.2%) were main causes of nonreceiving of the benefit. About 76% mothers had antenatal registration within the first trimester. About 99% were institutional deliveries. At least one postnatal check-up was received by 77% mothers. Only 33.3% mothers initiated breast feeding within 1 hr of delivery. Natural method (30.6%) and condom (30.6%) were main contraceptive methods accepted by them at the time of conducting study. Conclusion: Information, Education and Communication activities should be carried out to increase awareness regarding JSY utilization.