Introduction: Exclusive breast feeding practice ranks fi rst among the most effective interventions to improve child health. Present study was undertaken to compare breast feeding practices among urban and rural mothers and the factors infl uencing these practices. Materials and Methods: One year long community based crosssectional study was done at villages namely Vantamuri, Kakati (A and B), Honaga, and Bhutramanahatti; and urban area Khasbag which are the fi eld practice areas of Department of Community Medicine, J. N. M. C., Belgaum. By random sampling, 380 rural mothers and 400 urban mothers having 1-year-old child were selected. Information on sociodemographic variables, breast feeding practices was recorded. Results: In the present study, majority of urban (65.00%) as well as rural mothers (64.21%) were between 20 and 24 years of age and were literates (90.25 and 77.89%, respectively). Majority of the mothers in both urban and rural areas gave prelacteal feeds (54.25 and 57.11%, respectively). Many mothers in both rural and urban areas discarded the colostrum, (14.75% in urban vs 25.79% in rural). Initiation of breast feeding after delivery was delayed by 24.50% of mothers in urban and 33.68% of mothers in rural areas. As many as 67.89% rural mothers practiced demand feeding as opposed to 38.75% urban mothers. Age of the mother, education, socioeconomic status, type of family, place of delivery, and education about benefi ts of breast feeding infl uenced the breast feeding practices. Conclusions: Various inappropriate breast feeding practices are prevalent both in rural as well as urban areas. Elder’s advice played an important role in shaping the breast feeding practices.