Guillain-Barré syndrome: Clinical profile and Consensus to revise Hughes grade 5
Background: Guillain–Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an acute, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy and an important cause of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) worldwide. Respiratory insufficiency requiring ventilator occurs in 30% of patients that prolong the hospital stay, leading to morbidity and mortality. There had been relatively few studies of Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults from South India. Aim: To evaluate clinical profile, epidemiological, laboratory, and electro diagnostic features of patients with GBS in adults. Settings and design: A prospective study was conducted over a period of 4 years at ESIC Superspeciality Hospital, Hyderabad. Materials and methods: Total 36 patients were identified and data was collected. We studied the epidemiological, clinical, electrophysiological features and their outcome. We subdivided Hughes grade 5 into 5A and 5B based on the requirement of ventilator. Statistical Analysis: Data obtained in the study were subjected to statistical analysis with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18. Bivariate analysis was done using chi-square test. Results: Of 36 GBS patients, 21(58.3%) were males; the mean age was 35 years. Antecedent infection was found in 23(63.8%). Majority 12 (33%) were in Hughes grade 4, 10 (27.7%) were in Hughes grade 5A. 97.2% had limb weakness. A significant association was found between low Medical research sum score (MRC) and respiratory failure. Most predominant neurophysiological variant was acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) 12 (33.3%). Duration of illness was less than 1week in 19 (52.7%) of cases. Asymmetry was observed in 5 (13.8%) and recurrence of Guillain-Barre Syndrome seen in 2 (5.5%) cases. Complete recovery was noted at 6 months in 34 (94.4%) cases. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of respiratory failure and prompt intervention improves patient outcome. Further large sample studies are required to assess respiratory failure and subdivision of Hughes grade 5.