Introduction: Birth weight is an important indicator of maternal and child health of the country. Various socioeconomic and maternal factors are responsible in determining birth weight. Hence, the present study was conducted to find out the proportion of low birth weight (LBW) among the babies born at Agartala Government Medical College and Govinda Ballabh Pant Hospital and to reveal the relationship between various maternal factors and birth weight. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted during the period from July 1, 2012 to August 31, 2012 among 305 mothers admitted in the postnatal ward selected by concurrent sampling. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were applied. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Proportion of LBW was found to be 23.9% and it was significantly higher among rural mothers (28.6%, P = 0.017), anemic (28.8%, P = 0.004), Venereal Disease Research Laboratory reactive (83.3%, P = 0.002) and mothers who delivered vaginally (32.8%, P = 0.001). LBW was significantly lower among mothers who received iron and folic acid (IFA) tablets (22.4%, P = 0.007) and were immunized against tetanus (22.8%, P = 0.011). Conclusion: Adequate antenatal checkup, IFA supplementation, screening and treatment for syphilis, etc. are necessary for improving birth weight in this community.