Research Question: How important is acute respiratory tract infections in children less than 5 years of age and what are the main factors that need attention. Objective: To determine the magnitude of ARI under 5 years of age in rural areas of Kashmir valley. 2) To identify various risk factors responsible for ARI. Methodology: Community based Cross sectional study using multistage sampling procedure was used to study 1644 children. A house to house survey was carried out in the defined geographical region in order to determine the prevalence and risk factors of ARI less than 5 years of age. Results: Among 1644 children under 5 years of age studied, 886 (53.89%) were males and 758 (46.11%) female. An overall prevalence of 21.41% under 5 years of age was observed in a Kashmir valley. The prevalence of ARI varied according to the age of child being 19.3% in age group of 0–1 years, 23.0% in 1–3 years and 20.4% in age group of 3–5 years. Prevalence of ARI was more (22.5%) in male children as compared to female (20.05%) children [P>0.05]. The socio demographic variables that showed a significant relationship with ARI prevalence were parental literacy status (OR = 1.806; CI = 1.333 – 2.447; P < 0.05) and more so the Mother’s literacy status (OR = 1.635; CI = 1.284 – 2.083; P < 0.05). ARI risk being high among Malnourished children (OR = 2.38; CI = 1.804 – 3.157; P<0.05), inappropriately immunized children (OR=2.41; CI = 1.853 – 3.154, P<0.05), children lacking exclusive Breast feeding (OR = 4.854; CI = 3.735 – 6.309; P< 0.05) or put on early or delayed weaning (OR = 1.66; CI = 1.302 – 2.140; P < 0.05). Environmental / housing variables also showed significant association with ARI with risk being high in children living in poor ventilation (OR = 4.865; CI = 3.78 – 6.259; P < 0.05), overcrowded houses (OR = 1.829; CI = 1.442 – 2.320; P < 0.05), houses with kitchen not separate (OR = 1.829, CI = 1.442 – 5.481, P < 0.05), and using cooking fuel other than LPG (OR = 2.063; CI = 1.615–2.634; P < 0.05) Conclusion: Besides sensitizing mothers on childhood nutritional (exclusive breast feeding and early / delayed weaning) and immunization the role of environmental /housing variables (Poor ventilation, over crowding, combined kitchen and use of cooking fuel other than LPG) need attention.